Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://localhost:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/3542
Title: Biogenic Cluster-Encased Gold Nanorods as a Targeted Three-in-One Theranostic Nanoenvelope for SERS-Guided Photochemotherapy against Metastatic Melanoma
Authors: Sujai, P T
Joseph, M M
Karunakaran, V
Saranya, G
Adukkadan, R N
Shamjith, S
Thomas, R
Nair, J B
Swathi, R S
Maiti, K K
Keywords: gold nanorods
FDTD simulations
Issue Date: 22-Jan-2019
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Citation: ACS Applied Bio Materials; 2(1):588-600
Abstract: Effective treatment of malignant melanoma requires an appropriate combination of therapeutic intervention with long-term prognosis as it often survives by monotherapies. Herein, we report a novel melanoma-targeted theranostic nanoenvelope (MTTNe: ISQ@BSA-AuNC@AuNR@DAC@DR5) which has been constructed by assembling a bovine serum albumin (BSA) stabilized gold nanocluster on a gold nanorod (BSA-AuNC@AuNR), a three-in-one theranostic modality, i.e., photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), and chemotherapy, tethered with a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection technique. The resultant MTTNe was coloaded with the melanoma-specific FDA approved drug dacarbazine (DAC) and a newly synthesized near-infrared (NIR) absorbing squaraine molecule ISQ that served partly as a photosensitizer and multiplex Raman reporter. Finally, a nanoenvelope was anchored with anti-DR5 monoclonal antibodies as a targeting motif for highly expressed melanoma-specific death receptors in malignant cells. Significant phototherapies of MTTNe were initiated upon an 808 nm single laser trigger which showed a synergistic effect of photothermal hyperthermia as well as singlet oxygen (1O2) driven photodynamic effect in the presence of ISQ followed by on-demand thermoresponsive drug release in the intracellular milieu. Moreover, a multiplex SERS spectral pattern of ISQ (1345 cm–1) and DAC (1269 cm–1) has been utilized for monitoring precise drug release kinetics and target-specific recognition on melanoma cells by Raman imaging. Therapeutic performance of the nanoenvelope was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity studies in human melanoma cells (A375) and confirmed the apoptotic phenomenon by molecular-level monitoring of intracellular SERS fingerprints. Finally, to address the biocompatibility of MTTNe, in vivo subacute toxicity was conducted on BALB/c mice. Hence, the current studies mark a footstep of a facile strategy for the treatment of melanoma by synergistic multimodal photothermal/photodynamic/chemotherapy.
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