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dc.contributor.authorPradhan, S C-
dc.contributor.authorVelore, J-
dc.contributor.authorMeethal, S M-
dc.contributor.authorSoman, S-
dc.identifier.citationEnergies; 16(19):6913en_US
dc.description.abstractDyes have played a pivotal role in the advancement of modern dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as they not only facilitate light harvesting, but also serve as blocking layers to impede recombination. In this study, we conducted a systematic investigation to elucidate the influence of dye coverage on the photovoltaic parameters of copper-electrolyte-based DSCs by precisely controlling the dye coverage on the TiO2 substrate using D35 organic dye solutions with varying concentrations. The dye loading increased proportionally with the increase in dye concentrations until it reached saturation at a concentration of 0.2 mM. However, an optimal dye concentration of 0.1 mM was determined in terms of achieving the highest photovoltaic performance, under both outdoor and indoor light conditions. Notably, a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.50 ± 0.25% under outdoor illumination (100 mW/cm2) and 10.48 ± 0.30% under indoor light (1000 lux, WW CFL) was attained using a 0.1 mM D35 dye concentration. Additionally, the dark current and ideality factor (m) were found to be minimized at the 0.1 mM dye concentration. Furthermore, the ideality factor (m) exhibited disparities between indoor and outdoor light conditions. The lifetime obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements correlated well with the ideality factor (m) and dark current. Notably, electron injection, dye regeneration, charge collection, and ion diffusion were observed to be independent of the dye coverage.en_US
dc.subjectcopper electrolyteen_US
dc.subjectindoor photovoltaicsen_US
dc.titleFundamental Understanding of Dye Coverage and Performance in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Copper Electrolyteen_US
Appears in Collections:2023

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